How To Fix a Moldy Attic

By
Home Inspector with Structure Tech Home Inspections

If you see black stuff covering or growing on the roof sheathing in your attic, it's probably mold.  It's never fun to find out that your house has mold, but the fix for mold in the attic is usually quite straightforward, and doesn't involve the services of any 'mold remediation experts'.

There are a lot of folks in the real estate industry, including home inspectors, who get very excited when the word 'mold' comes up.  I actually sat through a seminar where we were told to never even use the word mold, because "you never know what something is without testing it."  I couldn't help pointing out that by that logic, we should no longer call houses 'wood framed' houses unless we test the material to verify that it's actually wood.

Mold in attic

What causes mold in an attic

When mold grows in an attic, it's caused by a moisture problem.  Period.  Some moisture sources are obvious and have a huge impact - bathroom exhaust fans, kitchen exhaust fans, clothes dryers... they all pump moisture out of the house, and they should never be vented in to the attic.   Everyone knows that, right?

Bath fans venting in to attic

The less obvious moisture sources are attic bypasses; air leaks that allow relatively warm, moist air from the house to get in to the attic.  To reduce the amount of moisture getting in to an attic, the attic air leaks need to be sealed off.  Covering these air leaks with traditional insulation doesn't stop the air movement; there needs to be some type of air barrier installed, such as foam insulation or caulk.  These attic bypasses show up quite clearly with an infrared camera, but any well-trained insulation contractor will already know exactly where to look for these.

Photos of Attic Bypasses / Attic Air Leaks

I've accumulated about a bazilli0n photos of attic bypasses over the years, so included below are a few of the most common places you'll find attic bypasses in just about every Minnesota house built before 1991.  In all of the photos below, I've pulled the insulation away to reveal the bypasses; you won't find any of these in your attic without moving insulation around.  For the record, home inspection standards of practice don't require the home inspector to move insulation... so don't be surprised if your home inspector didn't mention any of this stuff.

Any time small cables or wires pass through the top plates of walls in to the attic, the holes for the wires should be sealed up.  When they're not sealed, they leak air.  Do you see how some of the insulation in the photo below has been darkened?  It's not mold.  This is the result of years and years of air leaking through the insulation; the insulation acts like a filter, and traps all the dust in the air, turning it black.  Even though these tiny holes don't seem like a big deal, having them all over your attic can have a huge effect.  Sealing these gaps can be easily accomplished with a can of foam insulation.

attic bypasses around wires

Larger penetrations in to the attic, such as plumbing vents, also need to be sealed.  Again, foam in a can works well.

attic bypass around plumbing vent

The first place I always check for attic air leaks is around the furnace vent; if there is air leaking in to the attic around this chaseway, there will surely be air leaking everywhere else.  In this first photo, the darkened insulation is a dead giveaway that there is a lot of air leaking through here.  Foam insulation wouldn't be an appropriate repair for this location - the vent is supposed to have at least one inch of clearance to anything combustible.  In the photo below, installing a small block of wood to fill the gap at the bottom (maintaining a one inch clearance to the vent) and then sealing the entire assembly with high-temperature caulk would be a good fix.

Attic bypass around furnace vent with fire stop

Here's another furnace vent - this one is completely missing the sheet-metal collar.  I could see right down in to the walls after pulling the insulation away.  This is very common.

Attic bypass around furnace vent

Here's a huge bypass around a furnace vent; the chaseway that leads down to the basement was large enough for a person to fit through, and it was basically wide open at the attic; they just had a piece of fiberglass insulation covering the top.  You can clearly see the basement ceiling from inside the attic.

Huge Attic bypass around furnace vent

The space around masonry chimneys will often be a source of air leakage.  If the chimney is being used for a wood burning fireplace, there needs to be a two-inch gap to combustible materials.  Sealing these air leaks will require the use of high temperature caulk and sheet metal.

attic bypass around chimney

As I mentioned in my blog about evil recessed lights, they can be a huge source of attic air leakage.  Notice all the light pouring through this fixture; the light equates to a lot of air leakage.

attic bypass around recessed light

When additions are put on, the transitions between the new and old portions of the house are often sources of air leakage.

attic bypass at addition

Whole-house attic fans can be a major source of air leakage in to attics.  These are fans that are designed to be run in the summer only.  The photo below shows light leaking through the attic fan, which means a lot of air is leaking through as well.

Attic bypass around whole-house fan

Probably the largest attic bypass that I commonly find is the one above the stairway to the basement on old ramblers.  All of the wall cavities are wide open to this space, and nothing above it is sealed off.  This is a bypass that's large enough to fit a small family in to.  Other areas where ceilings drop down in older houses will be areas to look for bypasses - especially over bath tubs and kitchen soffits.

attic bypass over stairway

Finally, the space below the knee walls in old one-and-one-half story houses can be a major source of air leakage.  The way to repair this is to have solid blocking installed underneath every joist cavity, and have it made completely airtight.

attic bypass in knee wall

This is certainly not an all-inclusive list of the places to find attic air leaks, but it should be enough to help you understand what an attic bypass is.  This is how air leaks in to the attic.  When all of these air leaks are perfectly sealed and a vapor barrier is properly installed in the attic, the attic interior will stay dry.

What if the air leaks can't all be sealed?  Sealing off all of the attic air leaks is nearly impossible to do without completely removing all of the existing insulation. I've actually recommended doing this many times, but before starting with such a drastic measure, it's a good idea to check the obvious stuff in the house first.  If the house is too humid, fix it.  A large percentage of attic moisture problems are caused by whole house humidifiers.  This fix for this situation is a no-brainer; turn the humidifier off.

Does adding more ventilation fix the problem?  Attic ventilation is required by the building code, but it's not a magic elixir.  Air moving through an attic will help to remove moisture, but this isn't the cure for a moldy attic.  I've heard many people conclude that an attic mold or moisture problem was caused by lack of ventilation, but that's a little like saying a hangover was caused by not taking enough Advil before going to bed.  Adding more ventilation to an attic is just a way of dealing with the symptoms, and it doesn't always work.

So what needs to be done about the existing mold?  It depends on who you ask.  If you talk to someone who has a financial interest in cleaning up the mold, they'll tell you it needs remediation.  If you ask someone who could get sued for not recommending professional remediation, odds are they'll tell you to have professional remediation.  Other people might argue that once the air leaks between the house and attic have been sealed off, it won't matter what's in the attic.  As long as the roof sheathing isn't rotted, I tend to agree.

For the record, sealing off attic bypasses is also one of the most effective ways of preventing ice dams and preventing frost accumulation in the attic.  The Minnesota Department of Commerce has an excellent guide to finding and repairing attic bypasses, which gives more detailed information on how to find all of these bypasses and how to fix them.

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Re-Blogged 3 times:

Re-Blogged By Re-Blogged At
  1. Chris Smith 03/20/2012 03:46 PM
  2. Erica Ramus 03/20/2012 04:13 PM
  3. Gene Mundt 03/26/2012 08:03 AM
Topic:
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Show All Comments
Rainmaker
892,763
Michael Setunsky
Michael's Commercial LLC - Woodbridge, VA
Your Commercial Real Estate Link to Northern VA

Reuben, a lot of good information in this post. Never thought about this until you pointed it out. Thanks.

Mar 20, 2012 05:35 AM #9
Rainmaker
959,627
Adrian Willanger
206 909-7536 TheHomeFunnel.com - Seattle, WA
Profit from my two decades of experience

Reuben, well done. Thanks for all the photos and the descriptions of some of the common causes and preventive measures that can be done to prevent mold in attics. 

Mar 20, 2012 05:50 AM #10
Rainmaker
1,245,595
Richie Alan Naggar Author PEARLS SERIES of books
People first then business! Ran Right Realty Riverside, Ca - Riverside, CA
on LIFE and LOVE plus Real Estate too!

If there ever was proof required that this is the man to hire for an inspection, this post would be exhibit A

Mar 20, 2012 06:24 AM #11
Rainer
104,719
Donna Bosze
Realty Executives Top Producers - Chesapeake, VA
Ask Me Why I'm Different!

Great information! I never thought to look at wire and plumbing bypasses - and the pictures really help. Very informative. Thanks for sharing!

Mar 20, 2012 07:25 AM #13
Rainmaker
606,218
Barbara Altieri
RealtyQuest, Fairfield and New Haven County CT Homes for Sale and Real Estate - Shelton, CT
REALTOR - Fairfield County CT Real Estate

Reuben -- Thanks for the exteremely informative lesson. I love your point about vents and dryers being vented into the attic. 'Everyone knows that, right?'  Wrong.....  

Mar 20, 2012 07:50 AM #14
Rainmaker
651,710
Evelyn Kennedy
Gallagher & Lindsey, Alameda, California - Alameda, CA
Alameda, Real Estate, Alameda, CA

Reuben:

Good information Mold is such a scary word for some buyers I can understand the instructor saying not to call it mold. 

Mar 20, 2012 11:03 AM #15
Rainer
277,179
Steven Cook
No Longer Processing Mortgages. - Tacoma, WA
- Pierce, King, Kitsap, Thurston, Mason Counties

Reuben -- I am noticing a bit of said dark stuff -- it is showing up right above the attic access (which has a tight fitting board -- but it is just to the side of the Washer and Dryer in the Garage, so I am guessing all that moisture from them running, is probably causing part of this problem.  Thanks for the insight.

Mar 20, 2012 11:54 AM #16
Ambassador
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Charles Buell
Charles Buell Inspections Inc. - Seattle, WA
Seattle Home Inspector

Reuben, good post as always.  There is another factor that often gets overlooked and that is that "black" discoloration is sometimes not mold at all but merely moisture interacting with the natural tannins in wood that turn the wood black.

Mar 20, 2012 12:16 PM #17
Rainmaker
567,215
Chris Smith
Re/Max Chay Realty Inc., Brokerage - New Tecumseth, ON
South Simcoe, Caledon, King, Orangeville Real Esta

Excellent post Reuben, I, too, feel that we often get too excited when we find mold.  Many times it can easily be remediated and controlled.

Mar 20, 2012 03:42 PM #18
Ambassador
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Erica Ramus
Erica Ramus - Ramus Realty Group - Pottsville, PA - Pottsville, PA
MRE, Schuylkill County PA Real Estate

Great post to reblog Ruben! Thanks... 

Mar 20, 2012 04:14 PM #19
Rainmaker
244,274
Bonnie Vaughan
Re/Max Home Team - Scranton, PA
CNE SFR - Buyers/Sellers - Lackawanna & Surroundin

Ruben:  you put together a very informative post.  The pictures are an excellent learning tool.  We just had a home inspection where there was mold in the attic due to improper ventilation.

Mar 20, 2012 05:57 PM #20
Rainmaker
229,481
Reuben Saltzman
Structure Tech Home Inspections - Minneapolis, MN
Minneapolis Home Inspections

Frank - thanks, I know it's a big deal everywhere :)

Joan - and it's a huge concern for buyers as well.

Jay - thanks!  People spend a lot of time chasing after a cure for the symptoms.  I typically never write mold in my reports, mostly because I don't want the buyer's lender to freak out.

Gita - it certainly is a contentious topic.

Fernando - thanks for reading.

Mar 20, 2012 06:46 PM #21
Rainmaker
229,481
Reuben Saltzman
Structure Tech Home Inspections - Minneapolis, MN
Minneapolis Home Inspections

Ritu - it's especially important to peek up there during cold weather.

James - I completely agree.  Who cares what it is!  You have a moisture problem... fix it.  The end.

Edward - I probably find just as many moisture problems in attics as I do in basements.

Michael - thanks.

Adrian - my pleasure.

Mar 20, 2012 06:49 PM #22
Rainmaker
229,481
Reuben Saltzman
Structure Tech Home Inspections - Minneapolis, MN
Minneapolis Home Inspections

Richie - you're too kind, thanks.

Donna - all those little holes really add up.

Barbara - good point ;).  With the amount I see, you're right... plenty don't know.

Evelyn - if the inspector calls it mold and it's not, that would certainly be a bad thing.

Steven - glad to help.

Mar 20, 2012 06:51 PM #23
Rainmaker
229,481
Reuben Saltzman
Structure Tech Home Inspections - Minneapolis, MN
Minneapolis Home Inspections

Charles - good point.  I know you recently wrote a similar post about black stuff in attics, and the photos you had in your post certainly didn't look like mold.

Chris - exactly.  Fix the moisture.  Thanks for re-blog!

Erica - thank you!

Bonnie - I'm sure you said that tongue-in-cheek, right?  :)

Mar 20, 2012 06:54 PM #24
Rainmaker
1,054,744
Joan Whitebook
BHG The Masiello Group - Nashua, NH
Consumer Focused Real Estate Services

Thios post is very helpful..  I think folks don't know where to turn when the inspector notest there is "suspicious microbial growth"... what??? are your saying the M word?

Mar 20, 2012 07:55 PM #25
Rainmaker
844,567
Fred Carver-Top Realtor Victoria, BC
Re/Max Camosun Victoria BC Real Estate - Victoria, BC
Accredited Victoria BC Real Estate Consultant

Hi Reuben..Congratulations on your Feature...Very Detailed post, Bathroom fans are the Main problems here with only being vented into an attic or the connection to the outside coming apart.

Cheers

Mar 20, 2012 08:50 PM #26
Rainmaker
365,906
Donald Hester
NCW Home Inspections, LLC - Wenatchee, WA
NCW Home Inspections, LLC

Reuben, Excellent post and right on. Mold/Mildew/Black stain due to tannis are all indication of other issues concerning moisture that need to be addressed. 

 

Mar 21, 2012 10:39 AM #27
Rainmaker
895,352
Brian Madigan
RE/MAX West Realty Inc., Brokerage (Toronto) - Toronto, ON
LL.B., Broker

Reuben,

This is an absolutely excellent post. I'm going to come back and read it carefully because I propose to re-blog it.

Brian

Mar 22, 2012 06:10 PM #28
Rainmaker
686,821
Gene Mundt
www.genemundt.com - Joliet, IL
Mortgage Lender - Chicago/Chicagoland Mortgages

Wow ... what an amazing amount of good info .. and photos .. you have made available here, Reuben.  I'm like Brian above ... going to read it again, digest ... and then re-blog in the future.

Thanks for taking the time to offer this here on the Rain ... very valuable ...

Gene

Mar 23, 2012 01:26 PM #29
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Reuben Saltzman

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